Further analysis of the United States Sentencing Commission USSC guidelines show a pattern of less severe sentencing pattern for white collar crimes, namely perpetrators of financial fraud such as insider trading simply receiving fines, community service or in more severe cases suspended jail time.
In contrast, perpetrators of non-violent street crimes do not evade prison and are pushed to serve a prison sentence. Jet Rakoff, a federal senior judge of Southern New York were Wall Street crimes had occurred, termed the Federal sentencing guides as too simplistic, leading to no incarceration of high-level executives charged with corporate crime.
Various reasons have been given for these sentencing disparities and they include: In terms of non-violence, the widely accepted belief that corporate crime is non-violent has been disproven due to the high number of suicides and work related accidents that occur as a byproduct of financial recklessness and the USSC guidelines has finally taken this into consideration. The media has been accused of hypocrisy in its coverage of corporate crime on the diverse channels of news dispersion platforms available to them.
This is in part due to securing their best interest, for most news outlets are owned or part-owned by big corporations. Encouragingly, steps have been taken to ensure that perpetrators of white collar crimes pay for their actions as can be seen from the USSC guidelines which encourage increased sentences for individuals involved in cases of large scale fraud.
The 9 years prison sentence given to Matthew Martoma for insider trading while working at SAC Capital Advisors has created a precedence for longer jail terms and it could serve as a deterrence to others. The Savings and Loan Crisis. US white-collar crime policy too soft. Crime, Prisons and Jails. When the Gender Gap is a Good Thing: Women and Corporate Crime. Definitions, Extents and Consequences. Sentencing Disparities between White Collar Crimes and Street Crimes To clarify the sentencing issues that arise, it is important to first understand the distinction between white collar crime and street crime according to the United States Department of Justice system.
US white-collar crime policy too soft Gale Research. Order a custom written paper of high quality Professional Writers only. Corporations that knowingly engage in the production of substandard food, drugs, or building materials, or who intentionally expose their employees to dangerous working conditions, can be held liable for crimes that fall into the white collar framework of analysis.
According to statistics from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, an estimated three million nonfatal workplace injuries and illness were reported by private employers in , with nearly five thousand fatal work injuries. Despite this staggering loss of life, however, few corporations or their leaders are held criminally liable for their misconduct.
There are numerous reasons explaining why little is done about white collar crime in general, and these deaths in particular, and they will be discussed later in this article.
Given the current condition of federal and state data collection methods, it is difficult to perform statistical analyses of white collar crime. There are no socioeconomic or occupational data about offenders in the Uniform Crime Reporting UCR data, for example, and no information other than the arrest records of corporate criminal actors. Similarly, FBI crime statistics collect information on only three categories of what is considered to be white collar crime: All other related crimes are encompassed in the category of "other.
The term "white collar crime" was used first in by sociologist Edwin H. Sutherland, who defined it as "a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation. Because the term "white collar crime" has gained such acceptance with the public and scholars, it is hard to appreciate the revolutionary nature of Sutherland's arguments.
Previously, crime analysis had focused on street crime and violence, rather than on the illegal actions of the rich and powerful. Sutherland sought to expose these crimes and bring justice to individuals harmed by those with powerful social, political, and economic connections.
Edward Ross had articulated these same concerns in an article published in The Atlantic Monthly in , but Sutherland's presidential address to the American Sociological Association's national convention in made front page news nationwide Wong, Albert Morris had also examined upper- class criminals in his book on crime, but Sutherland's public platform, catchy terminology, and theoretical research framework launched the subdiscipline.
Suddenly, the theoretical analyses of crime based upon poverty and poor socioeconomic conditions were shown to be inadequate as general explanations of criminal conduct Wong, Although the term "white collar crime" has gained public acceptance over the decades, sociologists and criminologists have engaged in an extensive debate over how to define the concept. Sutherland's argument that white collar criminals were of high status and respectability was challenged with research of the wide variety of individuals who engaged in white collar crime.
Similarly, scholars argued that the terms "respectability" and "high social status" were too vague and subjective for scholarly study. Thus, Sutherland's efforts to make a class-based definition of crime that focused on the perpetrator failed to withstand scrutiny. In part, this failure can be attributed to each individual's right to equal protection under the law. Within the US legal system, race, gender, wealth, occupation, and ethnicity cannot be used to discriminate among offenders.
Sutherland's argument that white collar criminals were of high status and respectability was challenged with research of the wide variety of individuals who engaged in white collar crime. Sutherland's argument that murder, robbery, and burglary were “blue-collar crimes” also was challenged.
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This sample White-Collar Crime Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Like other free research paper examples, it is not a custom research paper. If you need help writing your assignment, please use our custom writing services and buy a paper on any of the criminal justice research paper topics. Research Paper on White Collar Crime August 19, writer Research Papers 0 White-collar crime refers to illegal financial activities, defined as fraud by the laws of .
This research paper begins with a brief discussion of the history of the concept of white-collar crime in the discipline of criminology. The nature and extent of the harms imposed by white-collar crime are then detailed. Gavin Yescas-Santos. Research Paper- White Collar Crime Composition II 10/16/16 White-collar crime is a general term that refers any illegal act committed by a business2/5(1).